Cytopathology is the discipline that involves the microscopic examination of cells exfoliated into body fluids such as urine or obtained from body cavities in the chest, abdomen or from cysts. Cytology samples can also be obtained by aspiration of cells from solid lumps using a fine needle. Gynaecological cytopathology refers to the examination of cervical smear specimens. Cervical smears are examined by a liquid-based cytology technique using a Thin-Prep vial.
Diagnostic Cytology includes fine needle aspiration (FNA), urine cytology, fluid cytology including crystals examination in synovial fluids, sputum cytology, brushings and washings cytology, cyst fluids, FNA fluids and cerebrospinal fluids.